martedì 06 ottobre 2015 06:34 Età: 3 yrs

Il Belpaese e le procedure di decollo antirumore: dopo una indagine ICAO...

Categoria: Aeroporti, Ciampino, Ronchi L., Altri scali, Linate, Pisa, Genova, Treviso

 

Sulle piste italiane, probabilmente, è stata utilizzata la sola riduzione a 1500 piedi di quota!

Quanti dei seguenti profili di decollo - adottati per contenere l'impatto acustico nell'intorno delle piste e lungo le traiettorie di salita iniziale - sono state adottate dalle Commissioni aeroportuali insediate negli aeroporti civili/commerciali del Belpaese? Una indagine ICAO tra numerose aerolinee, in genere, ha identificato l'esistenza ben 14 profili di salita. Sono delle varianti alle cosiddette tecniche NAPD - Noise Abatement Procedure Departure. Sono procedure elencate dai documenti ICAO - Procedure per la navigazione aerea – Operazioni dei velivoli (PANS-OPS, Doc. 8168).

Le procedure di salita per l’attenuazione del rumore, sono state sottoposte preliminarmente alle verifiche di safety minime dei parametri di volo. Al fine di ridurre il rumore negli aeroporti è determinate la prima quota di riduzione iniziale della spinta dei motori, e alla quale inizia la fase di accelerazione e ripiegamento delle superfici di ipersostentazione. Nei PANS-OPS erano inclusi due esempi di procedura. Uno dei procedimenti (NADP1) è finalizzato al contenimento del rumore a distanze relativamente più prossime, e l’altro (NADP2) per ridurre il rumore a distanze relativamente più distanti. La verifica e la scelta del profilo di decollo antirumore, probabilmente, avrebbe dovuto essere sperimentata in loco: è avvenuto?

L'esperienza diretta e indiretta, l'analisi condotta per via brevi, lascia supporre che il Italia siano state adottati esclusivamente i profili identificati come 11 e 12.

La convinzione che una riduzione della spinta di decollo a quote di 800-1000 piedi e inferiori possano significare rilevanti diminuzione di impatto acustico sul territorio adiacente alle piste di Linate, Malpensa, Fiumicino, Bergamo Orio al Serio, Venezia Tessera, Treviso Canova, Ciampino GB Pastine, Pisa Galilei, Verona Villafranca, Napoli Capodichino, Torino Caselle, Peretola, Ronchi dei Legionari e tante altre è un fatto che non potrà che essere accertato nel corso di adeguate verifiche e sperimentazioni. Magari utilizzando tecniche di decollo GPS-RNAV volabili (non astrusità impraticabili) ed equivalenti. Commissioni aeroportuali permettendo!

 

AIR CARRIER SURVEY RESULTS

TAKEOFF THRUST SUMMARY

The vast majority of survey participants reported the use of reduced thrust takeoffs, applying either derated

thrust or assumed temperature methodology.

TAKEOFF FLAP SUMMARY

The following reflects the most common reported takeoff flap settings:

AIRCRAFT FLAP SETTING

A300 15

A310 15 & 20

A319 CONF 1+F & CONF 2

A320 CONF 1+F & CONF 2

A321 CONF 1+F & CONF 2

A330 CONF 1+F & CONF 2

A340 CONF 1+F & CONF 2

B737 05 & 01 & 15

B747 10 & 20

B757 15 & 05

B767 05 & 15

B777 05 & 15 & 20

MD11 25 & 20

MD80 11

MD90 11

DC8 15 & 18

DC9 05 & 01

DC10 20

EMB14 09

F100 05 & 15

 

 

Aircraft: A319, A320, B737, B747, B757, B767, B777

Profile 1

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 800’ AFE

• At 800’ Set Climb Power

• Constant Speed Climb to 1500’ AFE

• At 1500’, Reduce Pitch, Accelerate and Retract Flaps on Schedule

• Constant Speed Climb to 3,000’ AFE

• At 3000’, Accelerate to 250 kts.

• Constant Speed Climb to 10,000’

 

Aircraft: B737, MD90

Profile 2

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 800’ AFE

• At 800’, Set Climb Power

• Constant Speed Climb to 2500’ AFE

• At 2500’, Accelerate to 250 kts While Retracting Flaps on Schedule

• Constant Speed Climb at 250 kts to 10,000’

 

Aircraft: A319, A320, B737, B747, B757, B767, B777

Profile 3

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 800’ AFE

• At 800’, Reduce Pitch, Accelerate and Retract Flaps on Schedule, Following Initial Flap

Retraction (B747 Flap 5; B777 Flap 1), Set Climb Thrust

• Constant Speed Climb to 3000’ AFE

• At 3000’ Accelerate to 250 kts

• Constant Speed Climb at 250 kts to 10,000’

 

Aircraft: B747, B767, B777

Profile 4

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 800’ AFE

• At 800’, Reduce Pitch, Set Climb Power, Accelerate and Retract Flaps on Schedule

• Constant Speed Climb to 3000’ AFE

• At 3000’ Accelerate to 250 kts

• Constant Speed Climb to 10,000’

 

Aircraft: A300, A319, A320, A321, A330, B737, B747, B757, B767, B777, MD80, MD90

Profile 5

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 1000’ AFE

• At 1000’ AFE, Set Climb Power, Reduce Pitch, Accelerate and Retract Flaps on Schedule

• Constant Speed Climb to 2500’ AFE

• At 2500’ AFE, Accelerate to 250 kts.

• Constant Speed Climb at 250 kts to 10,000’

 

Aircraft: MD80, B737, B757, B767, B777

Profile 6

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 1000’ AFE

• At 1000’, Set Climb Power

• Constant Speed Climb at V2 plus to 2500’ AFE

• At 2500’, Reduce Pitch, Accelerate and Retract Flaps on Schedule

• Accelerate to 250 kts

• Constant Speed Climb at 250 kts to 10,000’

 

Aircraft: B757, B767, B777

Profile 7

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 1000’ AFE

• At 1000’, Reduce Pitch, Accelerate and Retract Flaps on Schedule

• Set Climb Thrust

• At 3000’, Accelerate to 250 kts

• Constant Speed Climb at 250 kts to 10,000’

 

Aircraft: B737

Profile 8

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 1000’ AFE

• At 1000’, Reduce Pitch, Accelerate and Retract Flaps on Schedule

• At Clean Speed, Set Minimum Power (1.2% Gradient)

• Constant Speed Climb to 2500’ AFE

• At 2500’, Accelerate to 250 kts

• Constant Speed Climb at 250 kts to 10,000’

 

Aircraft: B737

Profile 9

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 1000’ AFE

• At 1000’, Set Minimum Power (1.2% Gradient)

• Constant Speed Climb to 2500’ AFE

• At 2500’, Reduce Pitch, Accelerate to 250 kts while Retracting Flaps on Schedule

Aircraft: A320, A321, B747, B767, B777

Profile 10

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 1000’ AFE

• At 1000’, Accelerate and Retract Flaps on Schedule

• At 1500’ AFE, Set Climb Power, Accelerate to 250 kts

• Constant Speed Climb at 250 kts to 10,000’

 

Aircraft: A300, A319, A320, A321, A330, A340, B767, B777, MD11, MD80

Profile 11

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 1500’ AFE

• At 1500’, Set Climb Power, Reduce Pitch, Accelerate to Greater of Clean Speed or 250 kts While

Retracting Flaps on Schedule

• Constant Speed Climb at 250 kts to 10,000’

 

Aircraft: A300, A319, A320, A321, A330, A340, B737, B747, B757, B767, B777, DC10, MD11,

MD80, EMB145

Profile 12

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 1500’ AFE

• At 1500’, Set Climb Power

• Constant Speed Climb to 3000’ AFE

• At 3000’, Accelerate to 250 kts while Retracting Flaps on Schedule

• Constant Speed Climb at 250 kts to 10,000’

 

Aircraft: B777

Profile 13

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 1500’ AFE

• At 1000’, Set Climb Power

• Constant Speed Climb to 3000’ AFE

• At 3000’, Accelerate to 250 kts while Retracting Flaps on Schedule

• Constant Speed Climb at 250 kts to 10,000’

 

Aircraft: B777

Profile 14

• Takeoff Power and Flaps Climbing at V2 plus to 1000’ AFE

• At 1000’, Set Climb Power, Reduce Pitch, Accelerate to Greater of Clean Speed or 250 kts While

Retracting Flaps on Schedule

• Constant Speed Climb at 250 kts to 10,000’.